Brain Injury

The Signs & Symptoms of Brain Injury

Brain injury is damage to any area of the brain regardless of when or how it occurs. A brain injury can result in minor to substantial damage and can cause different types of cognitive impairments with differing levels of severity.

Types and Potential Causes of Brain Injury

  • Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) is an injury to the brain that occurs after birth, on a cellular level. Different factors can cause an ABI:
  • Traumatic Brain Injury (including concussion)
  • Anoxic Injuries (A Prolonged Lack of Oxygen)
  • Hypoxia (Decreased Oxygen Flow)
  • Neurotoxic Events (Exposure to toxic Chemicals)
  • Cerebral Ischemia (Restricted Blood Flow)
  • Infections, such as encephalitis or meningitis)
  • Strokes
  • Epilepsy or other seizure disorders
  • Hydrocephalus (buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain)
  • Brain Tumors

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is caused by an external force. Different factors can cause a TBI:

  • Vehicle-related collisions.
  • Falls
  • Sports Injuries
  • Explosive blasts and other combat injuries
  • About 10% of traumatic brain injuries are caused by violence, such as gunshot wound or domestic violence.
    Battery or Personal Violence

Every 21 seconds one person in the U.S sustains a brain injury.

  • An estimated 5.3 million Americans are living with a disbility related to a traumatic brain injury.
  • About 50,000 die annually as a result of brain injury.
  • In the U.S. about 1.5 million people suffer some type of brain injury every year.
  • Statistics indicate that men are 2 times more likely to suffer a brain injury than women.
  • Annual medical costs and lost productivity are estimated to be between $48 billion and $60 billion.

Symptoms of Brain Injury to the..

Frontal Lobe

  • Paralysis
  • Inability to plan a sequence of movements to complete a task.
  • Persistence of a single thought
  • Inability to focus on a task
  • Behavior and personality changes
  • Difficulty with problem solving
  • Inability to express language
  • Mood swings

Parietal Lobe

  • Difficulty with hand-eye coordination
  • Inability to name an object
  • Problems with reading and writing
  • Right-left confusion
  • Difficulty doing mathematics

Occipital Lobe

  • Difficulty identifying colors
  • Defects in vision
  • Hallucinations
  • Inability to recognise words and objects
  • Difficulty reading and writing

Temporal Lobe

  • Difficulty understanding spoken words
  • Difficulty recognising faces
  • Difficulty with indentification of and verbalization of objects
  • Short-term and long-term memory loss
  • Aggression

Brain Stem

  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Sleep apnea
  • Problems with balance and movement
  • Dizziness and nausea


  • Loss of ability to coordinate fine movements
  • Loss of ability to walk
  • Inability to grab objects
  • Tremors, dizziness and slurred speech
  • Inability to make rapid movements

The highest rate of injury occurs among people ages 15-24.

Children under age 5 and seniors over age 75 are also at higher than average risk.

After one brain injury, the risk for a second is 3 times greater.

After the second injury, the risk for a third is 8 times greater.

Brain Injury

This infographic is by Allen Allen Allen & Allen Attorneys for Injured Persons Since 1910



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