Brain injury is damage to any area of the brain regardless of when or how it occurs. A brain injury can result in minor to substantial damage and can cause different types of cognitive impairments with differing levels of severity.
Types and Potential Causes of Brain Injury
- Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) is an injury to the brain that occurs after birth, on a cellular level. Different factors can cause an ABI:
- Traumatic Brain Injury (including concussion)
- Anoxic Injuries (A Prolonged Lack of Oxygen)
- Hypoxia (Decreased Oxygen Flow)
- Neurotoxic Events (Exposure to toxic Chemicals)
- Cerebral Ischemia (Restricted Blood Flow)
- Infections, such as encephalitis or meningitis)
- Epilepsy or other seizure disorders
- Hydrocephalus (buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain)
- Brain Tumors
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is caused by an external force. Different factors can cause a TBI:
- Vehicle-related collisions.
- Sports Injuries
- Explosive blasts and other combat injuries
- About 10% of traumatic brain injuries are caused by violence, such as gunshot wound or domestic violence.
Battery or Personal Violence
Every 21 seconds one person in the U.S sustains a brain injury.
- An estimated 5.3 million Americans are living with a disbility related to a traumatic brain injury.
- About 50,000 die annually as a result of brain injury.
- In the U.S. about 1.5 million people suffer some type of brain injury every year.
- Statistics indicate that men are 2 times more likely to suffer a brain injury than women.
- Annual medical costs and lost productivity are estimated to be between $48 billion and $60 billion.
Symptoms of Brain Injury to the..
- Inability to plan a sequence of movements to complete a task.
- Persistence of a single thought
- Inability to focus on a task
- Behavior and personality changes
- Difficulty with problem solving
- Inability to express language
- Mood swings
- Difficulty with hand-eye coordination
- Inability to name an object
- Problems with reading and writing
- Right-left confusion
- Difficulty doing mathematics
- Difficulty identifying colors
- Defects in vision
- Inability to recognise words and objects
- Difficulty reading and writing
- Difficulty understanding spoken words
- Difficulty recognising faces
- Difficulty with indentification of and verbalization of objects
- Short-term and long-term memory loss
- Difficulty swallowing
- Sleep apnea
- Problems with balance and movement
- Dizziness and nausea
- Loss of ability to coordinate fine movements
- Loss of ability to walk
- Inability to grab objects
- Tremors, dizziness and slurred speech
- Inability to make rapid movements
The highest rate of injury occurs among people ages 15-24.
Children under age 5 and seniors over age 75 are also at higher than average risk.
After one brain injury, the risk for a second is 3 times greater.
After the second injury, the risk for a third is 8 times greater.
This infographic is by Allen Allen Allen & Allen Attorneys for Injured Persons Since 1910